Other commercial programs have evidence of their impact on learning through numerous opportunities to respond. Computer assisted instruction provides frequent responses and immediate feedback on results to enhance motivation and learning.

Class-wide Peer Tutoring provides a systematic approach to reciprocal peer tutoring that promotes high levels of on-task behavior by simultaneously engaging all students.

Direct Instruction is a teaching model that is the foundation of several commercially available reading and math programs that emphasizes carefully controlled instruction and an emphasis on high response rates and pace in a scripted interactive format. More information is available at http://www.nifdi.org or http://directinstrucion.org.

Lesson References

Cavanaugh, R. A., Heward, W. L., & Donelson, F. (1996). Effects of response cards during lesson closure on the academic performance of secondary students in an earth science course. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 403-406.

Colvin, G. (2009). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Council for Exceptional Children, (1987). Academy for effective instruction: working with mildly handicapped students. Reston, VA: Author.

Godfrey S.A, Grisham-Brown J, Schuster J.W. & Hemmeter, M.L. (2003). The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems. Education and Treatment of Children (26) 255–272.

Heward, W. L., & Gardner, R. (1996). Everyone participates in this class: Using response cards to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children, 28, 4-10.

MacSuga, A. S., & Simonsen, B. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based classroom management strategies through consultation: Overview and case studies. Beyond Behavior, 20(11), 4-12.

Miller, S.P. (2009). Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and abilities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1), 39-50.

Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd Ed., pp. 94-131). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Rowe, M. (1974). Wait-time and rewards as instructional variables, their influence on language, logic, and fate control, Part 1: Wait time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 17, 469-475.

Rowe, M. (1987) Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. American Educator, 11, 38-43.

Simonsen, B., Myers, D., & DeLuca, C. (2010). Providing teachers with training and performance feedback to increase use of three classroom management skills: Prompts, opportunities to respond, and reinforcement. Teacher Education in Special Education, 33, 300-318

MO SW-PBS Tier 1 Team Workbook 2018-19